IoT Malware: A Comprehensive Survey of Threats, Vulnerabilities, and Mitigation Strategies

  • Muhammad Shairoze Malik Department of Information Technology, Superior University Lahore Pakistan
Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT), IoT Security, Malware Analysis, Cyber Threats, Network Security, Cybersecurity Policies


The proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT) has ushered in a new era of connectivity and convenience, linking a vast array of devices from household appliances to industrial machinery. However, this interconnectivity also introduces significant security vulnerabilities, making IoT systems attractive targets for malicious actors. This comprehensive survey delves into the multifaceted world of IoT malware, exploring the evolving landscape of threats that plague these systems. We methodically analyze various types of IoT malware, identifying common attack vectors and the intrinsic vulnerabilities that IoT devices often possess. These vulnerabilities range from inadequate security protocols to the use of default credentials and unpatched software. Furthermore, the paper highlights real-world instances where IoT devices have been compromised, leading to significant disruptions and breaches of privacy. In addressing these challenges, we outline an array of mitigation strategies. These strategies include but are not limited to, enhanced encryption methods, regular
firmware updates, network segmentation, and the adoption of robust authentication mechanisms.
We also discuss the role of machine learning and artificial intelligence in predicting and preventing
IoT malware attacks. Moreover, our survey extends to the regulatory and ethical considerations
surrounding IoT security, advocating for a more proactive approach in standard-setting and compliance enforcement. The findings of this study aim to serve as a foundational resource for researchers,
cybersecurity professionals, and policymakers, emphasizing the need for a collective and informed
effort in fortifying the IoT ecosystem against the ever-growing threat of malware.